Nitika recently read about XOR operation and she got obssessed with it. She has an array containing N Positive integers.
She wants to perform Q queries on the array.
In a query She gives two integers L and R.(1 based indexing).
Now, she asks what is the xor of all the elements of the array after not including the subarray ranging from L to R (both inclusive).
Nitika guarantees that in each query, The resulting array is non empty.
The First line contains an integer T, the number oftestcases.
The first line of eachtestcase contains Two integers N ,Q -the Size of the array and the number of queries respectively.
The next Line contains N integers denoting the array.
Each of the next Q lines contains two integers L and R.
For each query Print the required answer.
1<= N,Q <=1e5
4 7 8 5 9 6 1 0 20 10
For the first query: The resulting array is: (4 ,7 ,20, 10)
Their Xor will be: 29
For the Second query: The resulting array is: (1, 0, 20, 10)
Their Xor will be: 31
For the Third query: The resulting array is: (4, 5, 9, 6, 1,0 ,20, 10)
Their Xor will be: 17
If you have purchased any course from GeeksforGeeks then please ask your doubt on course discussion forum. You will get quick replies from GFG Moderators there.